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76. To what does the term internal validity refer?

a. the degree to which results of a study can be generalized from one sample to another

b. the process of subject selection

c. the development of a treatment

d. the degree to which the results of a study can be attributed to the manipulation of the

independent variable

77. Susan has twelve subjects drop out of her study. Which threat to internal validity must she


a. mortality

b. history

c. selection

d. randomization

78. Many researchers devise “sham” treatments for their control groups to undergo, meaning

that the control group interacts with researchers in some way that is not thought to impact

the dependent variable or the outcome. This is done to weaken the argument that the

treatment group improvement may have occurred in part simply due to the attention this

group received from the researchers. These researchers are attempting to control for

which of the following?

a. multiple treatment interference

b. the Hawthorne effect

c. selection

d. experimenter effects

79. Which experimental design involves one experimental group and three control groups?

a. Solomon four-group design

b. pretest posttest control group design

c. posttest only control group design

d. quasi-experimental design

80. Why use nonequivalent control group design?

a. less cost

b. less time involved

c. easier training

d. because you cannot assign subjects to groups

81. In what design is the cause-and-effect argument strongest?

a. experimental design

b. quasi-experimental design

c. pre-experimental design

d. correlational design

82. In quasi-experimental research, when will the cause of differences between groups occur?

a. during the experiment

b. after the experiment

c. it has already occurred

d. it will never occur

83. Compared to longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies ______________.

a. are much less expensive

b. have better comparability of groups

c. have higher mortality rates

d. cost the same

84. If you want to answer a research question regarding whether a particular group of subjects

experiences any significant changes in behavior as they age but you do not have the time or

money for a traditional longitudinal study, which method would be acceptable?

a. cross-sectional

b. historical

c. follow-up

d. None of the above would be acceptable.20 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process

85. Which quasi-experimental design is the one most often used?

a. pretest posttest control group design

b. multiple baseline design

c. nonequivalent control group design

d. static group comparison design

86. Single subject designs are useful because they ____________.

a. allow for an in-depth examination of specific behaviors

b. are used when the behavior on which the researcher is focusing is not very well

defined in opera tional terms

c. allow for random assignment of participants into groups

d. have no threats to internal validity

87. When reviewing the problem and purpose sections of a research article, which of the

following questions would be pertinent?

a. Is the review recent?

b. Are the hypotheses clearly stated?

c. Are the results related to the hypotheses?

d. Is the objective of the study clearly stated?

88. Which is NOT a primary area to evaluate when judging a research report?

a. the hypothesis

b. the answer

c. the problem and purpose

d. references

89. When selecting a dependent variable, you should consider all of the following EXCEPT:

a. the measure has been used before.

b. the validity of the measure has been established.

c. the measure comes with testing forms.

d. norms are available, when applicable.

90. In a research proposal, what should follow the literature review section?

a. appendices

b. literature review

c. implications and limitations

d. method21 Final Examination GRM697 The Research Process

91. In a research proposal, what should follow the implications and limitations section?

a. appendices

b. literature review

c. implications and limitations

d. method

92. Which section of the proposal contains information on the instrumentation used?

a. introduction

b. method

c. implications and limitations

d. literature review

93. What is the shortened title which appears at the top of each proposal page called?

a. an abstract

b. a running head

c. an introduction

d. a reference

94. Which section of a manuscript discusses the reliability of any tests that were used?

a. introduction

b. methods

c. results

d. discussion

95. Which section of a manuscript discusses the general types of data analyses that were planned

and used in the study?

a. introduction

b. abstract

c. results

d. method

96. Which is a subsection found in the method section?

a. introduction

b. running head

c. results

d. data analysis

97. What type of information may be contained in the appendices of a manuscript?

a. original data

b. author’s notes

c. references

d. both a and c

98. The hypothesis is most likely to appear at the end of which section of a manuscript?

a. introduction

b. methods

c. results

d. references

99. What guidelines do most journals in the social and behavioral sciences follow?

a. Index Medicus

b. American Psychological Association

c. Society of Psychiatric Journals

d. Modern Language Association

100. What material is included in the abstract?

a. a one-sentence statement of the purpose

b. tables showing results

c. a list of sources that were consulted during the research

d. discussion of the important relationships between past research, the purpose of the

current study, the hypothesis and the results of the study

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